15 She [x] [Proverbs 20:13] rises while it is yet night and [y] Luke 12:42; [Psalms 111:5] provides food … She is far more precious than jewels. 1 The words of athe Preacher,1 the son of David, bking in Jerusalem. September 5, 2015 ~ taylork0515 ~ 2 Comments. Download the most popular Bible versions to use even when the Internet is unavailable. 7:26; Deut. She is far more precious than jewels. Read Proverbs 31 from the ESV Bible online. 16 I said in my heart, “I have acquired great twisdom, surpassing all who were over Jerusalem before me, and my heart has had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.” 6 I made myself pools from which to water the forest of growing trees. 14  There are those whose teeth are hswords, and the fire that never says, “Enough.”, will pbe picked out by qthe ravens of the valley. 10  Bloodthirsty men qhate one who is blameless. Who has established all rthe ends of the earth? Subscribe to a study package to unlock the ESV Study Bible, the interactive Knowing the Bible study series, the Preaching the Word commentary series, and more. Get updates on the Podcast! 3 Do h not give your strength to women, your ways to those i who destroy kings. 25 for apart from him4 who can eat or who can have enjoyment? Proverbs 31 The Words of King Lemuel. and hastens3 to the place where it rises. Her general character. Her husband declares that she has “done valiantly” (ESV “done excellently,” verse 29), another phrase linked to warfare (1 Samuel 14:48; Psalm 60:12; 118:15–16). Good News: You don't have to know how this works to be a Proverbs 31 Woman. ), vid., under Proverbs 15:2. 3 Do not give your strength to women, 5 I made myself dgardens and parks, and planted in them all kinds of fruit trees. English Standard Version (ESV). 1. Menu. cThere is more hope for a fool than for him. 18  She perceives that her merchandise is profitable. sdefend the rights of tthe poor and needy. She is far more precious than jewels. 6 Give strong drink to the one who n is perishing, and wine to o those in bitter distress; 2 7 p let them drink and forget their poverty From this to the end of the chapter we have the character of a woman of genuine worth laid down; first, in general, Proverbs 31:10-12; secondly, in its particular or component parts, verses 13-29; and, thirdly, the summing up of the character, Proverbs 31:30, Proverbs 31:31. She is like the ships of the merchant; she brings her food from afar. 13  There are those—how glofty are their eyes. She seeks wool and flax, and works with willing hands. 31 The words of King Lemuel. Support Proverbs 31 Ministries. The oracle.1. 14 I have seen everything that is done under the sun, and behold, all is rvanity7 and a striving after wind.8. 15  sWhat is crooked cannot be made straight. 14 tThe wise person has his eyes in his head, but the fool walks in darkness. (1-9) The description of a virtuous woman. Proverbs 31:14 ESV She is like the ships of the merchant; she brings her food from afar. Proverbs 31 provides a detailed metaphor of feminine wisdom in the context of a family and a community. An oracle that his mother taught him: 1 The words of King Lemuel, the oracle which his mother taught him: 1 The words of King Lemuel. 7 I bought male and female slaves, and had eslaves who were born in my house. [O] What are you doing, son of my womb? Contents "Proverbs" translates to the Hebrew word mashal, but "mashal" has a wider range of meaning than the short catchy sayings implied by the English word. 4 By justice a king h builds up the land, 11  The heart of her husband trusts in her. 10 # 31:10 Verses 10–31 are an acrostic poem, each verse beginning with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet # ch. She is far more precious than jewels. 1 The words of King Lemuel. Proverbs 31:25 ESV. Proverbs 31:1–9: "The Words of King Lemuel of Massa, Which his Mother Taught Him" Proverbs 31:10–31: the ideal wise woman (elsewhere called the "woman of substance"). 13 And I papplied my heart6 to seek and to search out by wisdom all that is done under heaven. 14  If a king tfaithfully judges the poor. but xthe righteous will look upon their downfall. In a day and time when the world is trying to quiet biblical truth, Proverbs 31 Ministries is determined to help women engage with God’s truth like never before through the resources we offer each day. NASB New American Standard Bible. Proverbs 31 Parallel Chapters. Subscribe to become a Proverbs 31 Ministries Podcast Insider and get access to bonus content, journal prompts and more! Today's Reading: Ephesians 1:1a (ESV) "Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God …" Ephesians begins with the words, "Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God..." (Ephesians 1:1).Paul's letter to the Ephesians was written toward the end of his life, and we'll discover through our study that it was a wild ride. 1:27] son of my vows? 18:22; 19:14] An excellent wife who can find? and one given to anger causes much transgression. She does him good, and not harm, all the days of her life. It is an unhappy qbusiness that God has given to the children of man to be busy with. 11  A fool gives full vent to his spirit. 30 l Charm is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised. What are you doing, (B)son of my vows?3 Do (C)not give your strength to women,    your ways to those (D)who destroy kings.4 (E)It is not for kings, O Lemuel,    it is not for kings (F)to drink wine,    or for rulers to take (G)strong drink,5 lest they drink and forget what has been decreed    and (H)pervert the rights of all the afflicted.6 Give strong drink to the one who (I)is perishing,    and wine to (J)those in bitter distress;[b]7 (K)let them drink and forget their poverty    and remember their misery no more.8 (L)Open your mouth for the mute,    for the rights of all who are destitute. This also is vanity and a great evil. Resource Library Browse the Proverbs 31 archives for free content resources. 2  cVanity2 of vanities, says athe Preacher. when he sits among the elders of the land. What are you doing, g [1 Sam. 3 Do not give your strength to women, Cancel. Commentary for Proverbs 31 . Charm is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the LORD is to be praised. 9 Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy. The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. the fool only rages and laughs, and there is pno quiet. Strength and dignity are her clothing, and she laughs at the time to come. Version. (ESV) 3  He who eloves wisdom makes his father glad. Sign up for an account to try it FREE for 30 days. Even in the night his heart does not rest. ESV® Text Edition: 2016. 13  The poor man and the oppressor rmeet together; the Lord sgives light to the eyes of both. Read Proverbs 31 online (ESV) Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting; but a woman who fears the L ord is to be praised. 7  A righteous man mknows the rights of the poor; a wicked man does not nunderstand such knowledge. Proverbs 31:10-31English Standard Version (ESV) The Woman Who Fears the Lord 10 [a]An excellent wife who can find? 11The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. and mpervert the rights of all the afflicted. 3 Do h not give your strength to women, your ways to those i who destroy kings.. 4 j It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings k to drink wine, . and he who increases knowledge increases sorrow. 19 and who knows whether he will be wise or a fool? Proverbs 31 audio bible; Footnotes 31:2 Hebrew What, my son? but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2  What are you doing, my son?1 What are you doing, fson of my womb? 19  By mere words a servant is not disciplined. b 6 Hebrew those bitter in soul c 8 Hebrew are sons of passing away d 10 Verses 10 - 31 are an acrostic poem, each verse beginning with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet 4 I made great works. Proverbs 31:10-31 ESV. The most popular Bible verses from the chapter Proverbs 31. sWhat is his name, and what is his son’s name? The Words of King Lemuel. The Vest Pocket New Testament is a great choice when you want to carry God's Word with you wherever you go.Features:Includes Psalms and ProverbsDouble-column, paragraph formatBlack letter textHigh … Read chapter Proverbs 31 online. What are you doing, g son of my vows? “Charm is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised.” Proverbs 31:30. Proverbs 31 Wife Life God. 30. 12 She does him good, and not harm, all the days of her life. but when dthe wicked rule, the people groan. 2 I ysaid of laughter, “It is mad,” and of pleasure, “What use is it?” Also my lwisdom remained with me. She is far more precious than jewels. Watch Queue Queue. 10 And whatever my eyes desired I did not keep from them. and the teaching of kindness is on her tongue. Upgrade to Bible Gateway Plus, and access the, [ch. [a] What are you doing, (A)son of my womb? The Words of King Lemuel 31. She … 3 Do h not give your strength to women, your ways to those i who destroy kings. The Woman Who Fears the LORD - An excellent wife who can find? 9  If a wise man has an argument with a fool. ESV: English Standard Version 2016 . Bible > ESV > Proverbs 31 ... 31 Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates. 5 Habits to Develop Like the Proverbs 31 Woman #1 Reading your Bible every day. This also is vanity. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? 30  lCharm is deceitful, and beauty is vain. 2  When cthe righteous increase, the people rejoice. 17 So I hated life, because what is done under the sun was grievous to me, for oall is vanity and a striving after wind. DailyVerses.net. ~ Proverbs 31:31 ESV #proverbs #female ministers #first lady of the church #mothers #being a stepmom #virtuous woman #virtuous wife #striving for excellence #good wife #abounding #proverbs 31:31 An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? Who has qwrapped up the waters in a garment? 10  Is there a thing of which it is said, 11  There is no nremembrance of former things,4, 12 I othe Preacher have been king over Israel in Jerusalem. Its purpose is to celebrate wisdom-in-action, not to instruct women everywhere to get married, have children, and take up the loom. 31:1 The words of King Lemuel. Proverbs 31:10 Context. An oracle that his mother taught him: 13:26]. What are you doing, son of my womb? 14  She is like the ships of the merchant; with the fruit of her hands she plants a vineyard. 31 The words of King Lemuel. The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. The most quoted section, verses 10–31, is a chiastic poem, that is, a poem that cycles through repeated thoughts in a particular order. and what has been done is what will be done. Coupled with statements about his unparalleled wisdom ( 1Ki 4:29-31,34 ), it is quite likely that he was the source of most of Proverbs. 5  hThe sun rises, and the sun goes down. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? dlest he curse you, and you be held guilty. Proverbs 31:31 ESV Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates. and let her works praise her in the gates. 1 The words of King Lemuel. 8 Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. Often women believe that Proverbs 31 doesn’t really apply to our modern lives. Favour is deceitful.] (10-31)1-9 When children are under the mother's eye, she has an opportunity of fashioning their minds aright. The ESV ® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version ®) copyright ©2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Proverbs 31:10 Verses 10–31 are an acrostic poem, each verse beginning with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet; Proverbs 31:17 Hebrew She girds her loins; Proverbs 31:21 Or in double thickness; ... (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. Favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain: but a woman that feareth the L ord, she shall be praised. The Proverbs 31 woman “brings her husband good, not … 31 The words of King Lemuel. 18  For win much wisdom is much vexation. Easily hear Scripture read as you study the Bible! 11 Then I considered all that my hands had done and the toil I had expended in doing it, and behold, all was ovanity and a striving after wind, and there was nothing pto be gained under the sun. 6  Give strong drink to the one who nis perishing, 7  plet them drink and forget their poverty, for the rights of all who are destitute.3. 16  When the wicked increase, transgression increases. Her children rise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her: 29  bThree things are stately in their tread; 30  the lion, which is mightiest among beasts. 24  She makes hlinen garments and sells them; 25  iStrength and dignity are her clothing. That’s why she's doing new episodes of the Proverbs 31 Ministries Podcast series, Therapy & Theology, on the topic of forgiveness with Proverbs 31 Ministries Director of Theological Research, Joel Muddamalle, and her personal, licensed professional counselor, Jim Cress. 4  Who has oascended to heaven and come down? Proverbs 31:10-31 ESV / 7 helpful votes Helpful Not Helpful. Proverbs 30 Proverbs 31 (ESV) Ecclesiastes 1. The oracle.Or Jakeh, the man of MassaThe man declares, I am weary, O God; I am weary, O God, and worn out.Revocalization; Hebrew The man declares to Ithiel, to Ithiel and Ucal Proverbs 31 Ministries is a non-denominational, non-profit Christian ministry that seeks to lead women into a personal relationship with Christ, with Proverbs 31:10-31 as a guide. Daily Devotions Daily, biblical encouragement to help you filter everyday life through the truth of God’s Word. but when d the wicked rule, the people groan. She does him good, and not harm, all the days of her life. But I believe that God’s Word stands the test of time, don’t you? 11:1; Neh. NIV: ESV: NASB: KJV: HCSB: 1 The sayings of King Lemuel--an inspired utterance his mother taught him. 22 What has a man from call the toil and striving of heart with which he toils beneath the sun? 20 So I aturned about and gave my heart up to despair bover all the toil of my labors under the sun, ESV Large Print Compact Bible (TruTone Imitation Leather, Brown/Cordovan, Portfolio Design), ESV Large-Print Study Bible--genuine leather, black (indexed), ESV Scripture Journal, Old and New Testament Sets, 46 Volumes, ESV Journaling Bible, Interleaved Edition--Imitation leather with summer garden design, ESV Scripture Journal: New Testament Boxed Set of 19, ESV Study Bible, Black Genuine Leather with Thumb Index. 26 For to the one who pleases him iGod has given wisdom and knowledge and joy, but to the sinner he has given ethe business of gathering and collecting, jonly to give to one who pleases God. The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. She is far more precious than jewels. 31:6 Hebrew those bitter in soul 31:8 Hebrew are sons of passing away 31:10 Verses 10-31 are an acrostic poem, each verse beginning with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet 31:17 Hebrew She girds her loins 10 [d] (P)An excellent wife who can find? ESV- English Standard Version ... Back to Proverbs 31. The ESV ® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version ®) copyright ©2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Proverbs 31 - The words of King Lemuel. What are you doing, g son of my vows? 31  the dstrutting rooster,5 the he-goat. 1 What are you doing, f son of my womb? 18  kThree things are rtoo wonderful for me; 21  Under kthree things sthe earth trembles; 23  van unloved woman when she wgets a husband. Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. An oracle that his mother taught him: Proverbs 31:30 > NIV KJV ESV NKJV. Why then have I been so very wise?” And I said in my heart that this also is vanity. 1 What are you doing, f son of my womb? 7 Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more. What are you doing, my son? and let her works praise her in the gates. I had also great possessions of fherds and flocks, more than any who had been before me in Jerusalem. We will now look at her actions. Proverbs 31 English Standard Version (ESV) The Words of King Lemuel. 31 The words of King Lemuel. 12 qSo I turned to consider rwisdom and madness and folly. but fa companion of prostitutes gsquanders his wealth. yet they provide their food in the summer; 26  ythe rock badgers are a people not mighty. following (the segolated n. actionis צעד is of equal force with an inf. 3 He who e loves wisdom makes his father glad, but f a companion of prostitutes g squanders his wealth. She is far more precious than (Q)jewels.11 The heart of her husband trusts in her,    and he will have no lack of gain.12 She does him good, and not harm,    all the days of her life.13 She (R)seeks wool and flax,    and works with willing hands.14 She is like the ships of the merchant;    she brings her food from afar.15 She (S)rises while it is yet night    and (T)provides food for her household    and portions for her maidens.16 She considers a field and buys it;    with the fruit of her hands she plants a vineyard.17 She (U)dresses herself[e] with strength    and makes her arms strong.18 She perceives that her merchandise is profitable. An exhortation to king Lemuel to take heed of sin, and to do duties. 13 She seeks wool and flax, Proverbs 21:12-31 ESV Proverbs 21:12-31 ESV La Biblia de las Américas (Español) English Standard Version La Biblia del Jubileo 2000 King James Version New King James Version Nueva Traducción Viviente Nueva Versión Internacional La Biblia Reina-Valera … or for rulers to take l strong drink, 10  cDo not slander a servant to his master. 21  She is not afraid of snow for her household, for all her household are clothed in cscarlet.6. Proverbs 31:30 - KJV. Her children rise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her: “Many women have done excellently, but you surpass them all.” Charm is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised. 11 The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. I perceived that this also is but ra striving after wind. The oracle.Or Jakeh, the man of MassaThe man declares, I am weary, O God; I am weary, O God, and worn out.Revocalization; Hebrew The man declares to Ithiel, to Ithiel and Ucal 14 She is like the ships of the merchant; she brings her food from afar. Read. She is far more precious than jewels. 15 Then I said in my heart, v“What happens to the fool will happen to me also. 31:2 Hebrew What, my son? 18 I hated yall my toil in which I toil under the sun, seeing that I must zleave it to the man who will come after me, 16 For of the wise as of the fool there is wno enduring remembrance, seeing that in the days to come all will have been long forgotten. but it is from the Lord that a man kgets justice. God’s Word is still relevant today! I. Proverbs 31:17 - ESV - She dresses herself with strength and makes her... Study verse in the English Standard Version 9 So I became great and lsurpassed all who were before me in Jerusalem. 22  She makes dbed coverings for herself; when he sits among the elders of the land. Bible Reader with fully formatted text and multiple versions and languages available. Dos, non Deus, makes such marriages, but they commonly prove unhappy. The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. he is ua shield to those who take refuge in him. She is far more precious than jewels. 28  the lizard you can take in your hands. xHow the wise dies just like the fool! for though he understands, he will not respond. 12She does him good, and not harm, all the days of her life. Proverbs - Chapter 31 (ESV) Font Size + -The Words of King Lemuel. Proverbs 31 English Standard Version (ESV) The Words of King Lemuel. Watch Queue Queue NIV KJV ESV NKJV. She seeks wool and flax, and works with willing hands. Proverbs 31:30 awe beauty. Only swhat has already been done. 8  Remove far from me falsehood and lying; feed me with the food that is xneedful for me. ESV ® Text Edition: 2016. but a child left to himself wbrings shame to his mother. What are you doing, son of my womb? Navigate by book, topic, passage, search and more. About Proverbs 31. Listen . 1 What are you doing, f son of my womb? but one whose way is straight is an abomination to the wicked. Well I had a very productive day today! Proverbs 1 - The proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel: CSB Christian Standard Bible. 24 fThere is nothing better for a person than that he should geat and drink and find enjoyment3 in his toil. This also, I saw, is hfrom the hand of God, 31 Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates. 5  lest they drink and forget what has been decreed. Read Proverbs 31 online (KJV) Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting; but a woman who fears the L ord is to be praised. 13 She [w] [Proverbs 31:21-22, Proverbs 31:24] seeks wool and flax, and works with willing hands. Topics Subscribe Random Verse. ESV ® Text Edition: 2016. Solomon's ability to produce proverbs is specified in 1Ki 4:32, where 3,000 proverbs are attributed to him. The Proverbs 31 Woman Today. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? Read Proverbs 31 online (KJV) Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting; but a woman who fears the L ord is to be praised. ~ Proverbs 31:14 ESV #pleasing your husband #nagging woman #proverbs 31 #proverbs 31:14 #proverbs 21 because sometimes a person who has toiled with wisdom and knowledge and skill must leave everything to be enjoyed by someone who did not toil for it. Learn More 31 The swift-loined, also the goat; And a king with whom is the calling out of the host. will suddenly be abroken bbeyond healing. Bible … Proverbs 31:30 > NIV KJV ESV NKJV. Those who are grown up, should often call to mind the good teaching they received when children. Unauthorized reproduction of this publication is prohibited. I bbuilt houses and planted cvineyards for myself. 23 Her husband is known in the gates when he sits among the elders of the land. ... ESV English Standard Version. 31:1 The words of King Lemuel. She … for her price is far above rubies. 31 Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates. DailyVerses.net › Bible books › Proverbs < Proverbs 31 - NIV & ESV > « » New Internation Version English Standard Version. Proverbs - Chapter 31 (ESV) Font Size + -The Words of King Lemuel. 8 I also gathered for myself silver and ggold and the treasure of hkings and iprovinces. 13 Then I saw that there is more gain in wisdom than in folly, as there is more gain in light than in darkness. This also is vanity. What are you doing, son of my vows? 49:15 son of my womb? What are you doing, son of my vows? 20  Do you see a man who is hasty in his words? ESV® Text Edition: 2016. Footnotes: a 2 Hebrew What, my son? [f]22 She makes (Z)bed coverings for herself;    her clothing is (AA)fine linen and (AB)purple.23 Her husband is known in (AC)the gates    when he sits among the elders of the land.24 She makes (AD)linen garments and sells them;    she delivers sashes to the merchant.25 (AE)Strength and dignity are her clothing,    and she laughs at the time to come.26 She opens her mouth with wisdom,    and the teaching of kindness is on her tongue.27 She looks well to the ways of her household    and does not eat the bread of idleness.28 Her children rise up and call her blessed;    her husband also, and he praises her:29 “Many (AF)women have done (AG)excellently,    but you surpass them all.”30 (AH)Charm is deceitful, and beauty is vain,    but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised.31 Give her of the fruit of her hands,    and let her works praise her in the gates. 11 The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. 32  If you have been foolish, exalting yourself. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? 17  yDiscipline your son, and he will give you rest; 18  Where zthere is no prophetic vision the people acast off restraint,3. 4  By justice a king hbuilds up the land. Proverbs 31:12 “She brings him good, not harm, all the days of her life.” Thus far we have seen that a Godly wife is rare and a treasure to her husband and he can fully trust her in all areas. 3 I zsearched with my heart how to cheer my body with wine—my heart still guiding me with wisdom—and how to lay hold on afolly, till I might see what was good for the children of man to do under heaven during the few days of their life. 1 The words of King Lemuel. 24  The partner of a thief ghates his own life; hhe hears the curse, but discloses nothing. For what can the man do who comes after the king? 17 And I uapplied my heart to know wisdom and to know vmadness and folly. Proverbs 31 - The words of King Lemuel, the utterance which his mother taught him: Copy Options. 31 The words of King Lemuel. Pro 31:21 - She is not afraid of snow for her household, For all her household is clothed with scarlet. Proverbs 31:10-31 ESV / 42 helpful votes Helpful Not Helpful. 6  An evil man is kensnared in his transgression. Proverbs 31:30 - NIV. Proverbs 31:10-31 ESV. The ESV ® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version ®) copyright ©2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? Womanhood. 11  There are those3 who ecurse their fathers, 12  There are those who are fclean in their own eyes. 13 She seeks wool and flax, and works with willing hands. ESV ® Text Edition: 2016. The ESV ® text has been reproduced in cooperation with and by permission of Good News Publishers. 31 Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates. Love. She “laughs” (verse 25) at the time to come “like a victorious warrior or a victorious king,” as Peter Leithart puts it (“Proverbs 31:10–31, Introduction”). Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? An oracle that his mother taught him: 2 What are you doing, my son? and a maidservant when she displaces her mistress. 29  zHe who is often reproved, yet stiffens his neck. and the teaching of kindness is on her tongue. lest he rebuke you and you be found a liar. Proverbs 30-31: The words of Agur son of Jakeh. Proverbs 31:22–23 Proverbs 31:22–23 (Listen) 22 She makes bed coverings for herself; her clothing is fine linen and purple.